muscle weight, as the animal approaches maturity, without an increase in muscle fiber size can be partially explained on the basis of intra-muscular fat deposition (McMeekan, 1940b). Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate development of satellite cells and fibro/adipogenic progenitors will help develop therapies for muscle disease or disorders. The body size of sheep is similar to humans and can be easily influenced by dietary management, making sheep a convenient model for studying body weight control. Sports Medicine, 36(4), 293-305. However, isolated forms of plant protein, such as soy isolate or wheat gluten, often score above 90% as they are devoid of things like fiber or phytic acid which may affect digestibility (7,29). In addition, amino acids from plant proteins are more likely to be converted to urea than animal proteins (4,5,8,9). These committed myoblasts proliferate and fuse to form primary muscle fibers under the control of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), including Myf-5, Myo-D, myogenin, and MRF-4 (Buckingham et al., 2003). Most muscle fibers in adults are formed during the secondary myogenesis. This critique also makes it seem like we’re completely against plant-based diets. Studies on the mechanisms regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle will help us to improve animal growth and meat production efficiency, as well as human health. by OK! About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Fouillet, H., Juillet, B., Gaudichon, C., Mariotti, F., Tomé, D., & Bos, C. (2009). Farm animals are much closer in body size to humans and share similar developmental patterns of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, making them advantageous models for studying pathophysiological conditions in humans. It’s worth taking the time to compare protein sources because: 1) Bodybuilding is a very popular activity centered on muscular development and aesthetics (14). Valente, L. M., Cabral, E. M., Sousa, V., Cunha, L. M., & Fernandes, J. M. (2016). Not potential health markers, not spirituality, not climate change, just muscle growth. Bjørnsen, T., Salvesen, S., Berntsen, S., Hetlelid, K. J., Stea, T. H., Lohne‐Seiler, H., … & Haugeberg, G. (2016). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(5), 997-1005. Metabolic studies in farm animals have focused on increasing muscle growth efficiency and meat quality, while decreasing production costs. Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging. Du, M., X.Yan, J. F.Tong, J.Zhao, and M. J.Zhu. In humans, ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle induces local inflammation and insulin resistance, leading to development of metabolic dysfunction and diabetes mellitus (Akhmedov and Berdeaux, 2013). Huang, Y., X.Yan, M. J.Zhu, R. J.McCormick, S. P.Ford, P. W.Nathanielsz, and M.Du. Since myocytes, adipocytes, and fibroblasts are all derived from the same pool of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in dermomyotome during early embryonic development, their commitments to different lineages can be considered as a competitive process (Du et al., 2015). Oh, and one more thing – the plant based community often seeks to declare conflicts of interest and/or bias when reading studies that don’t support their “side.” Yet, they seem to have glossed over the fact that the primary investigator of this review is the, “… scientific leader of a research contract with Terres Univia, the French Interbranch organization for plant oils and proteins.” Hmmm. This is not an article brimming with cherry-picked data to support a certain viewpoint. Since the comparison between plant-based and animal-inclusive diets can quickly spiral out of control, it’s worth taking a second to assuage tempers on both sides before delving deeper. Van den Maagdenberg, K. Claeys, E. Stinckens, A. However, in humans and ruminants, brown adipose tissue is only abundant in neonates, and brown adipose tissue is replaced by white adipose tissue (Symonds, 2013). Due to the similarity in size, gestation length, and maternal burden, sheep are commonly used as models for fetal programming studies, even though the gestation length of sheep is only about half that of humans. However, if you feel strongly either way about what is presented here, make sure you’re taking the time to pen a clear and concise statement devoid of personal opinion, belief, or poorly-sourced data. Ectopic lipids in skeletal muscle induce local inflammation and impair downstream insulin signaling, which disrupts glucose metabolism and leads to development of metabolic dysfunction (Akhmedov and Berdeaux, 2013). Pennings, B., Boirie, Y., Senden, J. M., Gijsen, A. P., Kuipers, H., & van Loon, L. J. Optimizing your diet, no matter your primary food source, is a major component of making gains. The above leucine threshold seems necessary for driving muscle protein synthesis, so all one has to do is find the right amount of their desired protein source that lands them in the sweet spot of the leucine threshold. Thus, the population size of myogenic precursor cells not only determines the number of muscle fibers formed but also affects the density of satellite cells in postnatal muscle. Furthermore, increased fibrogenesis was found in the skeletal muscle of lambs born from the ewes treated with maternal over-nutrition during gestation (Huang et al., 2010). So, now begs the question, who is this protein intake sufficient for? (2012). Animal proteins typically present with rates over 90% while plant proteins usually range between 45-80% (7). Koopman, R., Crombach, N., Gijsen, A. P., Walrand, S., Fauquant, J., Kies, A. K., … & van Loon, L. J. For example, Wagyu cattle have very high marbling (intramuscular fat), along with low subcutaneous fat thickness, which may be even lower than the subcutaneous fat thickness seen in Angus and other breeds of cattle commonly used for meat production. Quite frankly, a plant-based diet is not optimal for muscle growth. Myogenic precursor cells surrounding primary muscle fibers profoundly proliferate to increase their numbers and then fuse to form secondary muscle fibers (Beermann et al., 1978). Intramuscular fat develops later, is less mature, and glucose is required for producing glycerol and other intermediates for adipocyte maturation, whereas subcutaneous fat develops earlier, and acetate is preferred for the synthesis of fatty acid hydrocarbon chains. It is reported that the total number of adipocytes is set before adolescence in humans (Spalding et al., 2008). If you choose to lead a plant-based lifestyle, I completely respect that. Liang Zhao is a PhD student in Growth Biology in the Department of Animal Sciences at Washington State University. The authors simply state that this issue is a, “… subject of interest for future research.”. content, high muscle, low fat, with low gut weight. (2011). (2009). Chronological difference of adipogenesis in different depots of beef cattle. However, this doesn’t account for the increase in protein breakdown that occurs following training. While this scale is not perfect, it represents the current working knowledge in the scientific community. Wolfe, R. R. (2002). Plant and animal proteins can induce different rates of muscle protein synthesis which can affect muscle growth, strength, performance, and even longevity. Clinical Nutrition, 20(2), 97-99. Yang, Y., Churchward-Venne, T. A., Burd, N. A., Breen, L., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Phillips, S. M. (2012). The Journal of Nutrition, 132(10), 3219S-3224S. Dr. Yan Huang is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas. Right off the bat, even the abstract states, “Given the growing shifts in recommendations from nutrition health professionals for people to transition to more plant-based, whole-food diets, additional scientific evidence-based communications confirming the protein adequacy of vegetarian and vegan diets is warranted.” Notice that the authors state that we need data confirming the adequacy of plant-based diets, not examining the adequacy. Meat Science, 92(3), 174-178. Several types of exercise can induce protein breakdown, so protein intake now has to account for both repair/replacement and addition of muscle proteins. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 36. The protein sparing function of the gut and the quality of food protein. Aquaculture, 453, 77-85. van Loon, L. J. Marbling is another term for intramuscular fat in skeletal muscle (e.g., meat). Plant protein blends in diets for Senegalese sole affect skeletal muscle growth, flesh texture and the expression of related genes. Because meat animals are typically harvested at a young age, the amount of intramyocellular lipid is limited and correlates with the presence of type I fibers, but in humans, intramyocellular and to a lesser extent intramuscular lipid accumulation leads to insulin resistance. Nutrition Journal, 12(1), 86. Most forms of exercise will cause an increase in muscle protein synthesis with resistance training leading the pack (21). 4) Different sources of protein can induce different effects on the rate of muscle protein synthesis (29). Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss. Understanding the roles of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in the core temperature maintenance and body weight control can help us to improve muscle growth and alleviate metabolic disorders. When tissues or organs are actively developing, they are susceptible to nutrient fluctuations. This particular review does not even attempt to cover athletes. Muscle fiber composition affects animal growth efficiency and meat quality, while in humans, shifting oxidative to glycolytic myofibers is associated with metabolic syndromes. In sheep, our previous studies showed that both maternal under- and over-nutrition during mid-gestation decreased myogenesis during fetal development, but only over-nutrition increased intramuscular fat deposition. Since glycogen content determines ultimate postmortem pH which affects meat quality, a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers reduces ultimate pH and water holding capacity of meat. Volek, J. S., Volk, B. M., Gómez, A. L., Kunces, L. J., Kupchak, B. R., Freidenreich, D. J., … & Quann, E. E. (2013). Futile calcium cycling between sarcoendoplasmic reticulum is an important mechanism of nonshivering thermogenesis in muscle (Clarke et al., 2012). Liang Zhao, Yan Huang, Min Du, Farm animals for studying muscle development and metabolism: dual purposes for animal production and human health, Animal Frontiers, Volume 9, Issue 3, July 2019, Pages 21–27, https://doi.org/10.1093/af/vfz015. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 32(2), 122-135. Nutritional regulation at the fetal stage can alter the composition of muscle fibers, and the lean:fat ratio, which could benefit both animal production and human health. Venderley, A. M., & Campbell, W. W. (2006). Joe, A. W., L.Yi, A.Natarajan, F.Le Grand, L.So, J.Wang, M. A.Rudnicki, and F. M.Rossi. However, dysregulation of these progenitor cells is correlated with muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis. Fetal programming at the prenatal stage determines skeletal muscle development and has long-term effects on offspring. Skeletal muscle is a major tissue for energy utilization and maintenance of metabolic health in humans, while providing lean tissues for meat animals. Understanding the contribution of skeletal muscle to whole-body energy expenditure and heat production may help identify new treatments for obesity and associated metabolic syndromes in humans, and also increase feed efficiency in farm animals, especially beef cattle and sheep. Muscle fiber composition affects animal growth efficiency and meat quality, while in humans, shifting oxidative to glycolytic myofibers is associated with metabolic syndromes. Satellite cells are activated by a multitude of growth factors and cytokines, including 2 key mediators of muscle growth, IGF-1 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. We can’t worry about that forever, though, so let’s get started. Skeletal muscle mainly uses carbohydrate and lipids for energy production to support various biological functions, including growth, physical activity, and thermogenesis. Therefore, comparing animal protein sources with plant protein sources makes perfect sense. Staff CLAs reduce the risk of heart disease, among other benefits! This documentary opens your eyes to the troubles with keeping wild animals in captivity through. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. So how do protein sources compare? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), P26. Consequently, nonruminants and humans use glucose and long-chain fatty acids as the principal sources of energy, whereas ruminants mainly utilize volatile fatty acids. As mentioned above, muscle mass is either increased, maintained, or decreased depending on the balance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown. Whey will provide leucine beyond the threshold which probably offers no additional benefits, while soy will be right in the wheelhouse of the threshold. (2015). This is typically measured by the proportion of amino acids that are digested and absorbed and thus available in a form that can contribute to protein synthesis. Since a higher amount of plant protein was used, the necessary leucine threshold of 2-3g was met (17,26). Stage 2 - Growing out In mid growth (say after weaning at 6-9 months) bone growth continues but the animal’s This material is based upon work that is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award numbers 2015-67015-23219 and 2016-68006-24634. That’s your choice and everyone else’s diet is their choice. In addition, in a model of muscle injury, fibro/adipogenic progenitors are activated earlier and secrete cytokines to promote the function of satellite cells for muscle regeneration (Joe et al., 2010). We see evidence of this in studies showing that protein balance can actually be negative following resistance training without protein intake (read here). That’s about it. Lastly, the review admits that certain modifications may be required for older adults consuming a plant-based diet. Finally, skeletal muscle plays a significant role in core temperature homeostasis and body weight control. However, studies do show that plant protein can be beneficial for growth, there’s just one caveat: you have to eat more! The loss of skeletal muscle mass (atrophy) that accompanies disuse and systemic diseases is highly debilitating. Hopefully this preemptive statement does the trick in preventing tempers from flaring, but it is 2019, so I’m sure someone will find a way around it. Skeletal muscle is mainly comprised of muscle fibers, connective tissues, and intramuscular adipose tissues. In animal production, skeletal muscle provides meat for human consumption. However, the role(s) that uncoupling protein 3 and sarcolipin play in thermogenesis of skeletal muscle in large mammals including humans and ruminants remain largely unexplored and requires further study. Protein quality is highly related to EAA and leucine content and, up until recently, was measured by the PDCAAS scale, which stands for Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score. In addition, glucose is used for de novo lipogenesis in humans while ruminants mainly use rumen-derived acetate. Thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle contribute to core temperature maintenance and body weight control in response to external stimuli such as cold exposure. We understand that this a long-winded review of this piece, but it’s important to keep up with the information surrounding this controversy. Bone - Growth. Growth of animal tissues results in formation of key food products such as meat which consists of muscle and connective tissues. Dr. Min Du is a Professor and Endowed Chair in the Department of Animal Sciences at Washington State University (WSU). The two main precursors to protein synthesis are exercise and food intake – primarily protein (13,18,21). Development of visceral, subcutaneous, intermuscular, and intramuscular adipose tissue follows a sequential order in livestock. Buys, N. and De Smet, S. 2007. The resident fibro/adipogenic progenitors are responsible for adipose homeostasis in adult animals (Jiang et al., 2014). Muscle growth is the result of protein synthesis, and the rate of muscle growth slows as the animal reaches approximately half its mature size. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(1), 106-115. Moreover, compared with other common cattle breeds, Wagyu and Angus have similar growth characteristics. Because muscle and adipose tissues develop during specific stages of gestation (Figures 2 and 3), the long duration of gestation and lactation in ruminants (especially beef cattle) allows stage-specific nutritional interventions to enhance animal growth performance and meat quality. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(6), 2040-2048. Take the information cited in this piece and use it to your advantage if you want to design a plant-based diet primed for muscle growth. Cypess, A. M., S.Lehman, G.Williams, I.Tal, D.Rodman, A. B.Goldfine, F. C.Kuo, E. L.Palmer, Y. H.Tseng, A.Doria, et al.Â. Dr. Jacob Wilson, PhD CSCS*D His research focuses on the physiology and metabolism in skeletal muscle with metabolic disorders. For more alphabet soup, Charlie is also a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), an ACSM-certified Exercise Physiologist (ACSM-EP), and a USA Weightlifting-certified performance coach (USAW). Hocquette, J., I.Ortigues-Marty, D.Pethick, P.Herpin, and X.Fernandez. To appease the nerds, Charlie is a PhD candidate in Human Performance with a master’s degree in Kinesiology and a bachelor’s degree in Exercise Science. If one does wish to subscribe to a plant-based diet while attempting to maximize muscle growth, creatine and beta-alanine supplementation should be considered as dietary provisions of both will be much lower (22,30). Animal proteins consistently score higher than plant proteins (15,22). The reason for this is that both studies used at least 30g of plant-based protein. It is estimated that by 2060, nearly one in four individuals in the United States (94 million) will be over the age of 65 (Vespa et al., 2018). Uezumi, A., S.Fukada, N.Yamamoto, S.Takeda, and K.Tsuchida. However, it’s important to understand the objective and non-biased science behind plant-based diets and muscle growth. The characteristics of muscle fibers and connective tissues determine meat tenderness, whereas intramuscular adipose content (marbling fat) is the major factor determining the flavor and juiciness of meat (Hocquette et al., 1998). Phillips, S. M. (2012). From the charts in this section, it’s easy to see that animal-based proteins consistently have higher EAA contents and higher leucine contents (29). Since older adults typically do not digest and/or absorb protein as well as younger adults, they likely need a greater protein intake to achieve maximal levels of protein synthesis. Although rodents have been widely used as models for studying human pathobiology, differences in body size, life span, and some physiological characteristics make rodents inappropriate biomedical models for many disease conditions affecting humans. Postnatal muscle growth is an important aspect of animal production because it influences the performance traits. Formation of intramuscular adipocytes mainly occurs during the late fetal to about 250 d of age in beef cattle (Du et al., 2015) (Figure 3). Negative protein balance can occur from a lack of food and can ultimately cause a decrease in muscle size due to protein breakdown occurring at a faster rate than protein synthesis. Satellite cells and fibro/adipogenic progenitors are two groups of progenitor cells in adult skeletal muscle responsible for muscle fiber regeneration and growth (Wosczyna and Rando, 2018). Specifically, satellite cell proliferation and differentiation are stimulated by IGF-I, whereas FGF-2 stimulates proliferation but inhibits differentiation ( Allen and Boxhorn, 1989 ; Greene and Allen, 1991 ; Byrne et al., 2000 ). But the plant-based community has been taking the above conclusion far out of context and is applying it to athletes and bodybuilders. Therefore any claims about the gains-effectiveness of a plant-based protein other than soy should be met with appropriate skepticism. These populations will also have a need for both greater protein and greater leucine intake. Therefore, ruminants, especially sheep, provide excellent models to delineate the role of nonshivering thermogenesis of skeletal muscle in maintaining body temperature and weight control (Figure 4). I’m not sure why, but I have a hunch that delving into sports nutrition wouldn’t exactly support their conclusion mentioned in the paragraph above. Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training. Phillips, S. M. (2011). But that doesn’t mean muscle growth is impossible! Though ruminants and humans exhibit different characteristics in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, they share similar regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of satellite cells and fibro/adipogenic progenitors leads to muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis in humans, while enhancing fibro/adipogenic proliferation may increase marbling in meat animals. Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate is accompanied by an accelerated in vivo digestion and absorption rate when compared with its intact protein. I. Therefore, regulation of the formation of adipogenic precursors during the early developmental stage affects adipocyte hyperplasia and the overall mass of adipose tissue. In contrast, under-nutrition followed by over-nourishment after birth led to overall adiposity in offspring (Zhu et al., 2006; Zhu et al., 2008). Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 121 , 331 – 344 . This review was of major assistance while drafting this article so credit is certainly due. (2012). Note: One source in this piece was determined to potentially have a conflict of interest and/or bias (20). Therefore, oxidative and glycolytic metabolism in skeletal muscle are tightly regulated to optimize energy expenditure, and glycogen and fat storage to support various biological functions. Nonessential amino acids are not necessary to stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in healthy volunteers. Since skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 40% of total body mass in large mammals, a small disturbance in muscle thermogenesis may contribute substantially to the total energy expenditure of the whole body, especially in adult animals when the contribution from nonshivering thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue is negligible. Muscle mass index still correlated with animal protein intake in g/d (P = 0.001) and in g/kg body weight per d (P = 0.008), and the animal:plant protein intake ratio (P = … Plant and animal proteins can induce different rates of muscle protein synthesis which can affect muscle growth for the bodybuilder and muscle mass in the individual interested in longevity and quality of life. J. Physiol. Relationship between animal protein intake and muscle mass index in healthy women. Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. Protein synthesis by way of food is mostly driven by essential amino acids (EAAs). Thus, understanding the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms and timeline of skeletal muscle development during early life is essential for improving animal growth and the efficiency of meat production as well as improving human health. Milk proteins have been shown to be more effective for lean mass gains compared to soy proteins when both are taken in the same amount and same time frame (10,31). Positive protein balance elicits increases in muscle size and is driven by an increase in protein synthesis (32,34). Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26(7), 755-763. Postprandial metabolic utilization of wheat protein in humans. Sarcolipin is an endogenous activator of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum ATPase, which transports calcium back into the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum and generates heat. Journal of Animal Growth can absolutely be achieved on a plant-based diet, however, specific steps must be taken to maximize growth – just like consuming a diet with both animal and plant sources. Vegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisers. Soeters, P. B., & Deutz, N. (2001). Hartman, J. W., Tang, J. E., Wilkinson, S. B., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Lawrence, R. L., Fullerton, A. V., & Phillips, S. M. (2007). Recently, however, uncoupling protein 1-positive brown-like adipocytes were found in humans (Cypess et al., 2009) and also in intramuscular fat in beef cattle, which was interspersed amongst white adipose tissue depots of adults (Wei et al., 2018). The Journal of Nutrition, 132(1), 125-133. Since the upper limit of the leucine threshold exists somewhere between 3-4g (11), taking in higher amounts of both will probably lead to similar increases in protein synthesis. In rodents, brown adipose tissue in the interscapular region remains throughout their lifespan. Fibrosis disrupts muscle homeostasis, weakens muscle contraction force, and impairs its metabolic function. Du, M., B.Wang, X.Fu, Q.Yang, and M. J.Zhu. When the information in this review stays in the context of the population in question, it’s perfectly fine. Integr. EAAs, and especially BCAAs act as signaling molecules that can help kick start the protein synthesis process (1). Recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common source of progenitor cells, called fibro/adipogenic progenitors (Joe et al., 2010; Uezumi et al., 2010). Since protein shakes contain milk, numerous studies ( 1 ) have also linked dairy products – including protein shakes – in lowering blood pressure and risks of diabetes. Skeletal muscle accounts for a large portion of resting metabolic rate and energy consumption, which may be critical for core temperature maintenance and body weight control in response to external stimuli. Into intramuscular and intramyocellular deposition A. K.Das, Q.Yang, and M. J.Zhu external stimuli as. Muscle tissue is a PhD student in growth Biology in the context of the Nutrition,... Farm animals can be separated into embryonic and fetal stages, respectively proteins! Latest news and updates from our team that ruminants and humans exhibit different characteristics carbohydrate. 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