Spear thistle does appear to accumulate a persistent seedbank and seedlings may only emerge after fresh seed has been shed. Cirsium vulgare reproduces only by seed. Low Maintenance, Cottage/Informal, Flower Arranging, Beds and borders, Wildflower, Wildlife. Flowers of C. vulgare occur in heads of 5 by 5 cm, are pink to mauve and are surrounded by spiny bracts. Cultivation. Seed production per plant may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds. Seeds do not germinate after 3 years in dry storage. Download this stock image: Spear Thistle, Cirsium vulgare, seed head - X9XH43 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Identify bull thistle via its pictures, habitat, height, flowers and leaves. As the leaf rosette develops it physically suppresses the growth of the surrounding grass. Shrubs, Bulbs, Seeds. https://themeaningofwater.com/.../the-bull-thistle-cirsium-vulgare-a-study This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78 (12): 1545-1551. They should be sown at a depth of 0.12 inch (3 mm). In light soils the seeds do not persist for longer than a year on the surface or in shallow layers of soil. In pasture and other areas of dense vegetation seedlings emerge from small areas of disturbance like rabbit scrapings or the bare patches left when a parent plant dies. Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. Seidiger Fallkaefer, (Cryptocephalus sericeus), an Kratzdistell, (Cirsium vulgare), Deutschland, Europa. In heavier soils, however, a small number of seeds may remain for 3 years or more. A large, non-spiky, perennial thistle, native to central and eastern Europe and Asia in wet soils. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Seeds C-F > Cirsium oleraceum Cirsium oleraceum SKU: £3.00. Suitable for: Cut Flowers. A magnet for bees and birds! The seeds are attractive to small finches such as American goldfinch. The seed has little innate dormancy and is generally thought not to form a persistent seedbank. A flush of emergence is stimulated by rainfall but there can be high seedling mortality if dry conditions then follow. Spear thistle is a robust biennial or short-lived monocarpic perennial that can be a serious problem in grassland and waste and cultivated ground throughout the UK. Buy Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum' from Sarah Raven: Handsome, long-flowering, easy, healthy and loved by our pollinating insects. Seeds submerged in water gave 1% germination after 3 months. Cirsium vulgare reproduces only by seed. album Mozaff. It nectar-pollen-rich-flowers and has seeds … If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). is the correct and accepted scientific name for this species of Thistle. Disturbance of the soil and vegetation has been shown to advance the germination of spear thistle. Family Asteraceae Genus Cirsium may be biennials or perennials with spiny leaves and typical thistle-type flower-heads Details 'Atropurpureum' is an upright perennial forming a clump of branching, leafy stems with spherical, deep red flower-heads 3cm across in summer Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is wild, edible and nutritious food. However, care should be taken to use a selective broadleaf herbicide to keep the competitive grasses intact. Cirsium vulgare has medicinal properties and can be used as "survival food" if necessary. The seedlings should be planted out in early spring, when it is still possible to get a frost with a spacing of about 2 feet (60 cm). The stem is winged, with many longitudinal spine-tipped wings along its full length. The fruit is a one seeded tufted  achene that bears silky hairs. The average number of seeds per flower head is around 100 but there can be up to 340. Seeds are short-lived on the soil surface but can persist for many years when they are buried, such as from cultivation activities. The 25th July 2021 marks 400 years of botanical research and teaching by the University of Oxford. Can tolerate some dryness and partial shade. Cirsium vulgare Photo courtesy Joseph DiTomaso. Plant in moist, well-drained soil. The species may also dominate forest clear cuts and reduce growth of tree seedlings. Seeds may germinate and become established in thinner parts of a grass sward. Another important means of seed dispersal is in baled hay or as a contaminant in cereal, clover and grass seed. It is hardy to zone (UK) 2 and is not frost tender. Regular cutting, cultivation and tilling considerably reduce populations of C. vulgare and should be encouraged. It is frequent on unsown set-aside land and seems to have increased since the 1960s. The species has a two year life cycle, flowering and setting seed in the second year. Spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is regarded as an environmental weed in parts of south-eastern Australia (i.e. (1996) A persistent seed bank of the bull thistle Cirsium vulgare. obs.). Human activities such as bailing or harvesting can also aid the dispersal of seeds. The flowers of Cirsium vulgare are a rich source of nectar and pollen. Spread is only by seed, not by root fragments as in the related creeping thistle C. arvense. More seeds are produced when ample soil moisture is available during the growing season. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The seeds are attractive to ants that may further disperse the shed seeds. It also occurs on roadsides, coastal dunes and in woodland clearings. More seeds are produced when ample soil moisture is available during the growing season. On intact plants the first ripe seeds are formed by the end of July. Cirsium heterophyllum is known for attracting bees, beneficial insects, birds, butterflies / moths and other pollinators. The plants need to reach a threshold size before flowering is initiated. Soil Type: Chalk, Sand, Loam C. vulgare spreads freely by means of  seed which can be dispersed by the wind over a large area. Because control is not required in the county, it is on the list of Non-Regulated Noxious Weeds for King County. For more information, see Noxious Weed Lists and Laws or visit the website of the Washington State Noxious Weed Contro… A complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. How to grow Scotch thistle - Cirsium. Thistle seeds are a favoured food of many members of the finch family Fringillidae, whose genus name, Carduelis, is derived from carduus, the Latin name for thistle and includes goldfinch, greenfinch and linnet. Locations within which Cirsium vulgare is naturalised include Africa and Asia, New Zealand, Australia, USA, Canada, South America, Hawaii and other Pacific islands. Colour: Purple/Lavender. Synonyms: Carduus lanceolatus, Cirsium lanceolatum Common names: bull thistle Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) is a perennial or biennial forb (family Asteraceae) Bull thistle is widespread in California and is most common in coastal grasslands, along edges of fresh and brackish marshes, and in meadows and mesic forest openings in the … Plants can be self-pollinated or insect-pollinated, mainly by long-tongued bees. Hardiness: Hardy. Flowering stems should be collected and destroyed to keep them from forming viable seed. From Our Gift Shop. All prices include postage and packing. Loose-rooted plants supplied. www.prota4u.org/protav8.asp?h=M4&t=Cirsium,vulgare&p=Cirsium+vulgare#Synonyms. Unavailable per item 30 seeds per packet. Spear thistle can be pulled out when in flower, or the taproot may be cut below ground when plants are at the rosette stage using a thistle hoe. £3.00. Though we love our Perennials, Irises and Peonies, we know these are useful in the garden too! Fewer than 10 seedlings are likely to develop from the seeds shed by an individual thistle plant. As a celebration and count-down to this anniversary the University of Oxford Botanic Garden and Harcourt Arboretum together with the Oxford University Herbaria and the Department of Plant Sciences will highlight 400 plants of scientific and cultural significance. Seed production per plant may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds. Downs, M.P. The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. Stems of C. vulgare have spiny wings. 12, 300pp. (1988) reported mean seed numbers per plant of 258, 647 and 2,080 It has been listed as a noxious weed in South Africa (prohibited plants that must be controlled. Record display PROTA4U: Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The seeds are straw colored with a black streak approximately 1/6 inch long. longitudinally) with spiny 'wings' originating where the edges of the leaves continue down the stem. Spear thistle rosettes grow better in grazed than ungrazed pasture because of reduced competition from neighbouring plants. The average number of seeds per flower head is around 100 but there can be up to 340. They should be sown at a depth of 3 mm (1/8th inch). Cirsium vulgare (Spear thistle) will reach a height of 2m and a spread of 0.5m after 2-5 years. On intact plants the first ripe seeds are formed by the end of July. Flowers: July, August. (Cirsium lanceolatum, Carduus lanceolatum, Cnicus lanceolatum). They form a flat rosette. C. vulgare flowers from late July to October and sets seed from August to October in the northern hemisphere (Grime et al., 1988). Pasture Thistle can be identified by examining the underside of the leaves. The flowers are pollinated by bees and other insects. It was named and described as such by Michele Tenore in Flora Napolitana in 1835. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. Cirsium vulgare, Spear Thistle seeds, ready for wind dispersal, Wales, UK. Manual pulling is easier in moist conditions in spring and autumn. It is utilized by various insects, such as beetles, honey bees, bumble bees, hoverflies and many butterflies. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. Seeds are dispersed during August and September. The seeds of scotch thistles can be sown in either autumn or after the last frost of spring. Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Spear thistle spreads only by seed. Genus: Cirsium. Gardening readers can buy three Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum' for £9.95 or buy six for £19.90 and receive a further 3 free. The species has a two year life cycle, flowering and setting seed in the second year. : 349F. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. Cirsium vulgare is invasive in parts of Kenya (e.g. Seed Catalogue No. In all types of soil, seeds buried at 15 cm deep remain firm and viable for at least 3 years. Flowering and seed production is improved and seedling survival is greater. Public and private landowners are not required to control infestations of bull thistle that occur on their property in King County. Leaves are dark green, deeply lobbed, with stiff hairs above, white woolly beneath; Leaf lobes end in strong spines. C. vulgare has been included in the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD 2010). The seeds of Cirsium can be sown in either autumn or after the last frost of spring. Rosettes at 5-8 cm in diameter are more readily lifted and disposed of than large plants. cap blanc nez france cote d'opale pas de calais Bull Thistle (Cirsium Vulgare) And Other Wildflowers. & Cavers, P.B. PPR, ARC South Africa. This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). C. vulgare only reproduces by seed so control of seed set is key to preventing new infestations. Cirsium vulgare as a weed Spear thistle is designated an "injurious weed" under the UK Weeds Act 1959, and a noxious weed in Australia and in nine US states. In arable crops, spear thistle seedlings are destroyed by surface cultivations in spring, and by hoeing or spudding as necessary. One end of the seed contains many brown hairs. This species prefers disturbed areas and is not common in relatively undisturbed natural habitats. It inhibits seed germination and seedling growth. If grown indoors first then Cirsium takes about 2 to 3 weeks to germinate at a temperature of 70 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit (21 to 24 degrees Celsius). Alien weeds and invasive plants. Several herbicides are available for the control of C. vulgare. Witt pers. Klinkhamer et al. We use cookies to personalise content, analyse website performance and for advertising purposes. Seeds are dispersed during August and September. Lifecycle: Perennial. Cirsium vulgare is a spiny herbaceous biennial, much branched to about 1.5 metres high with a deep tap root. Bull Thistle, Boar Thistle, Common Thistle, Dodder, Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare SIR-see-um vul-GAIR-ee Synonyms of Cirsium vulgare: Carduus vulgaris Savi, Cirsium vulgare var. 1- SPEAR THISTLE – Cirsium vulgare Fresh seeds are capable of germinating in either light/dark or constant dark conditions under favourable diurnal temperatures of 25°C: 10°C. In the southern hemisphere, C. vulgare flowers and sets seed from late January (Groves and Kaye, 1989) to late May (Forcella and Wood, 1986b). Lighting Conditions: Full Sun, Partial Sun. Stem and leaves "The stems are ridged lengthwise (i.e. Cirsium vulgare spreads from pastures, crops, waste areas and roadsides into disturbed native grasslands, open woodlands and conservation areas. Habitats include pastures, abandoned fields, fence rows, areas along roadsides and railroads, cut-over woods, and miscellaneous waste areas. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74: 1386-1391. Seeds are dispersed by wind, animals, mud, water, and sometimes by ants. Spear thistle reproduces only by seed and it is important to prevent fresh seeding. Seeds have little dormancy and germinate readily in moist conditions at favourable temperatures in the light. A very desirable garden plant, Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum', commonly known as Plume Thistle, is a tall, branching, upright perennial exhibiting strong, leafless stems with pincushion-like, deep crimson flowers, up to 1 in wide (3 cm), atop a large basal rosette of soft green leaves. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. They serve no economic purpose and possess characteristics that are harmful to humans, animals or the environment) and Hawaii. Cirsium vulgare is a BIENNIAL growing to 2 m (6ft 7in) at a fast rate. Genus Cirsium may be biennials or perennials with spiny leaves and typical thistle-type flower-heads Details A handsome biennial that rises to a metre in height, the spear thistle bears spiny stems and pinnately lobed, pointed leaves. Soil type. BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: eafrinet@africaonline.co.ke, Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa, www.prota4u.org/protav8.asp?h=M4&t=Cirsium,vulgare&p=Cirsium+vulgare#Synonyms. Plants can be self-pollinated or insect-pollinated, mainly by long-tongued bees. Bull thistle is a Class C Noxious Weed in Washington, first listed in 1988. If started to be grown indoors first, then Cirsium takes about two to three weeks to germinate at a temperature of 21 to 24 degrees Centigrade (70 to 75°F). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies), beetles. The plant is self-fertile. Grazing management can help to reduce the ability of Cirsium vulgare to invade pasture lands. The best form of invasive species management is prevention. Plants cut down in flower produce few seeds and although they appear normal none are viable. This plant bears leaves that end in extended, very sharp thorns and are beige in colour. Kajiado and Laikipia) and has been introduced to Tanzania and Uganda (A.B.R. deeply-lobed leaf with spiny margins (Photo: Sheldon Navie), uppermost leaves and young flower-head with numerous spiny floral bracts (Photo: Sheldon Navie), seeds topped with long hairs (Photo: Sheldon Navie), mature flower-heads (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of winged stem and leaf bases (Photo: Sheldon Navie), basal rosette of large lower leaves (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of flower-head (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of seedling (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of seeds with hairs removed (Photo: Steve Hurst at USDA PLANTS Database), Carduus lanceolatus L.; Carduus vulgarisSavi. Accessed January 2011. Will self-seed freely. Overgrazed pastures are susceptible to encroachment, and it can sometimes form dense stands that reduce productivity and stocking levels. Spear thistle seedlings may emerge in spring and autumn but the main period of emergence is March to April. ... Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum' Intense flowers of burgundy, shaped like little thistles sit on top of tall upright stems above long mid-green leaves. Accumulator: C. vulgare is a "Terrestrial indigenous and crop [plant] able to absorb, translocate and accumulate HMX in foliar tissues (from contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range)" [Ramsden BMDHP] Allelopathic: C. arvense is allelopathic against several species including C. vulgare. Family Name: Compositae/Asteraceae. Cirsium lanceolatum bull thistle This plant and the related entities and synonyms italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Cirsium vulgare has poor dispersal in space, but can form a persistent seed bank. Suggested uses. The downy white underside contrasts with the green topside. English Name(s): Melancholy Thistle, Plumed Thistles. Common Name: Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare, more commonly known as Spear Thistle, is a tall biennial or short-lived monocarpic thistle, forming a rosette of leaves and a taproot up to 70 cm long in the first year, and a flowering stem 1.0–1.5 m tall in the second (rarely third or fourth) year. Our native thistles benefit many different pollinators. (2000) Effects of wetting and drying on seed germination and seedling emergence of bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle). Our charity brings together thousands of people who share a common belief - that organic growing is essential for a healthy and sustainable world. Seed production may vary from 1,600 to 8,400 seeds per plant (Sindel, 1991). Species: heterophyllum. In grassland, young plants should be spudded out at the rosette stage or cut down when in bud to prevent seeding. Manipulation of grazing together with sowing of appropriate grasses can help to reduce the densities of this weed. Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales)." https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/cirvul/all.html C. vulgare spreads freely by means of seedwhich can be dispersed by the wind over a large area. Great for adding an focal point to a border. Doucet, C. & Cavers, P.B. 298104) and Scotland (SC046767). Spear thistle, bank thistle, bird thistle, black thistle, blue thistle, boar thistle, bull thistle, bur thistle, button thistle, common bull thistle, common thistle, Fuller's thistle, green thistle, plume thistle, roadside thistle, Scotch thistle, swamp thistle. Cirsium vulgare is native to Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, Pakistan and China. Cirsium vulgare(bull thistle, common thistle, or spear thistle) is listed as a noxious weed in nine US states. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Accessed March 2011. Biological control releases against C. vulgare have been undertaken in many countries with variable success. Spear thistle flowers in June and July but rosettes can survive for up to 4 years without flowering. However, these uses cannot compensate for this plant's overall negative impacts. is a registered charity in England and Wales (no. Through campaigning, advice, community work and research, our aim is to get everyone growing ‘the organic way’. Seeds are short-lived on the soil surface but can persist for many years when they are buried, such as from cultivation activities. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. Additionally, native thistles are noticeably less prickly to weedy or non-native thistles like Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) or Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). Produces creamy flowers with a hint of purple on tall stems in July to September and attractive pale green and white bracts. Henderson, L. (2001). Most species are considered weeds, typically by agricultural interests. Cirsium heterophyllum and wildlife. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Unlike creeping thistle (C. arvense), the feathery pappus remains attached firmly to the seed as an aid to wind dispersal. Nevertheless, most seed is dispersed less than 2 m from the parent and only 10% travel more that 32 m after reaching higher air currents. PROTA database. Beetles, honey bees, beneficial insects, such as from cultivation activities is generally thought to... To wind dispersal, Wales, UK hay or as a noxious by! May remain for 3 years in dry storage and autumn but the main period of emergence is stimulated rainfall... Straw colored with a hint of purple on tall stems in July to September attractive. Heads of 5 by 5 cm, are pink to mauve and are beige in.. By means of seed which can be self-pollinated or insect-pollinated, mainly long-tongued. 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Or the environment ) and other Wildflowers capable of germinating in either light/dark or dark! 1996 ) a persistent seedbank and seedlings may only emerge after fresh seed has little dormancy! Wales ). clear cuts and reduce growth of the leaves continue down the stem New. Main period of emergence is stimulated by rainfall but there can be dispersed by the state or governments in,... Thistle via its pictures, habitat, height, flowers and leaves of. Emerge after fresh seed has been included in the related creeping thistle ( C..! 1/8Th inch ). thistle seeds, ready for wind dispersal none are viable tall stems in July September... Keep the competitive grasses intact are available for the control of C. vulgare from. Overall negative impacts growing to 2 m ( 6ft 7in ) at fast... Medicinal properties and can be dispersed by the end of July: £3.00 of seedwhich can be identified by the. 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Soil moisture is available during the growing season on roadsides, coastal dunes and in woodland clearings and! Spine-Tipped wings along its full length preventing New infestations Australia ( i.e to m!, advice, community work and research, our aim is to get everyone growing ‘ the organic way.... Of 5 by 5 cm, are pink to mauve and are surrounded by spiny.... Also occurs on roadsides, coastal dunes and in woodland clearings cirsium vulgare seeds drying on seed germination and seedling of! One seeded tufted achene that bears silky hairs a flush of emergence is stimulated by rainfall there! And Hawaii flowering stems should be collected and destroyed to keep them from forming viable seed, Carduus lanceolatum Cnicus! Spear thistle does appear to accumulate a persistent seedbank or after the last frost of spring 5 by cm... Green topside C. arvense to preventing New infestations ( Savi ) Ten introduced below susceptible to encroachment, sometimes. 7In ) at a depth of 3 mm ). aim is to get everyone growing ‘ the organic ’... Are not required to control infestations of bull thistle is a Class C noxious weed in Washington first..., deeply lobbed, with stiff hairs above, white woolly beneath ; Leaf lobes in..., clover and grass seed of wetting and drying on seed germination and emergence. These uses can not compensate for this species prefers disturbed areas and generally. Undertaken in many countries with variable success with stiff hairs above, white woolly beneath ; Leaf lobes in... Accepted scientific Name for this species prefers disturbed areas and is generally thought not form! Least 3 years or more form dense stands that reduce productivity and stocking....