[11] As Saint Athanasius wrote, “For, [Christ] was made man, that we might be made gods.”[12], As a result, the anthropology of Hellenistic Christianity differs from prevailing Western views. Both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism belong to what can be termed Hellenistic Christianity, that is, a form of Christianity heavily influenced by Greek philosophies, particularly Gnosticism. If you've enjoyed my website and would like to help me keep it going, I would really appreciate it. Commentary from Sir William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870, p. In this post in my series “God and Man at Yale Divinity,” I share my paper on Hellenistic Christianity, otherwise known as Eastern Orthodoxy. By Tradition, the Church means “the faith and practice which Jesus Christ imparted to the Apostles, and which since the Apostles’ time has been handed down from generation to generation in the Church.”[9], Tradition includes particularly the Bible, the Nicene Creed, and the seven ecumenical councils. Indeed, Orthodox missions in Africa began when Anglican converts came to the Church, not as a result of contacts with Orthodox believers, but through personal study. [31] Ware, Orthodox Church, 77; Fairbairn, 145. A. G. Hebert (Eugen, OR: Wipf & Stock, 1931); Gregory A. Boyd, “Christus Victor View,” in The Nature of the Atonement, ed. In essence, if God could be imagined, God existed. [48] Indeed, one American convert summed up Orthodoxy’s attraction nicely. When the Church later moved into new lands, it often maintained this lack of cultural diversity in a translated form. All animal products, oil, and wine are forbidden during these times. 620).[2]. Through stumblings, shortcomings, and adversities, the Orthodox Church has persisted, safeguarding the traditions handed down to it and persevering as an ever-shining light from the too often forgotten Christian East. [44] In addition, Western theologians dissatisfied with the penal substitution theory of the atonement have begun to give the Orthodox view a fresh look.[45]. Hellenistic Christianity represents one of the most ancient expressions of the Christian faith still in practice today. Elaine Ruth Fletcher, “Orthodox Leaders Closer to Unity,” Christianity Today, February 7, 2000, 30; see also Bartholomew, 6. Through its preservation of ancient Christian beliefs and practices, Hellenistic Christianity stands as a living statement of the heritage all Christians share. [22] Bartholomew, 6, 20-21, 25; Payton, 175, 78-79; Ware, Orthodox Church, 33; Fortescue, Orthodox Church, 105; Fairbairn, 39. For all its faults, it has persevered in the faith of its ancestors, both as an established church—as in Greece today—and as a persecuted church—as in the Soviet Union. The ontological argument reflected the classical concept of "perfections". I have always been fascinated by Hellenistic Christianity, and I hope that this paper is of value to you. Christianity - Christianity - The early liturgy, the calendar, and the arts: St. Paul’s letters mention worship on the first day of the week. That at least two of the Christians mentioned in Acts 13 are from North Africa is perhaps a hint some Hellenists moved to Antioch rather than Egypt. The Hellenization of Christianity was a complex interaction between Hellenistic philosophy and early Christianity during the first four centuries of the Common Era. Anselm of Canterbury, a priest, monk, and philosopher defined God as the "Being than which no greater can be conceived." [18] In recent years, however, the Church has discussed the possibility of calling a new council to address contemporary issues it faces. [18]  However, the “Orthodox Church is not as much given to making formal dogmatic definitions as the Roman Catholic Church.”[19], Consequently, expressions of its beliefs on such diverse matters as the Eucharist, the Sacraments, the afterlife, Mary, and a variety of other topics are found not primarily in confessions of faith but “in the prayers and hymns used at service.”[20] Indeed, “[t]hose who wish to know about Orthodoxy should not so much read books as…attend the Liturgy.”[21]. [43], As a result, the Orthodox Church, particularly its “approaches to prayer and worship,” has begun to attract the attention of other Christian denominations. It is the first of three Read more…, Spread the loveIn this post in my series “God and Man at Yale Divinity,” I share my paper comparing pluralism and inclusivism and how they relate to understandings of personal salvation and religious diversity. (Stromata 6. It held, in contrast to Nominalism, that things such as "green" and "big" were known as universals, which had a real existence in an abstract realm, as described by Plato. Size, intelligence, beauty, power, benevolence, and so forth: all the qualities are called perfections. [13] Payton, 111, 13; Ware, Orthodox Church, 223-24; Garvey, 34; Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Way: Revised Edition (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1995), 61. Answer: Hellenism is the term used to describe the influence of Greek culture on the peoples the Greek and Roman Empires conquered or interacted with. (Current notable autocephalous churches include those of Constantinople, Russia, Antioch, and Greece, among others. Cook, "How Deep the Platonism," 269-286 in Farms Review of Books, vol. [6] Ware, Orthodox Church, 14; Fairbairn, 31. There's a substantial gap in most religions between religious practices and source mythology. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, "Christianity and Hellenistic philosophy", Learn how and when to remove this template message, A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Christianity spread throughout the Hellenic world, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Hebrew, Early Judaic, and Early Christian Thought, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Christianity_and_Hellenistic_philosophy&oldid=989280406, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles that may contain original research from October 2017, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Specifically, the doctrines of Trinity and the deity of … [14] Ware, Orthodox Church, 225; see also Payton, 122-24. [26], Eastern Orthodoxy claims to possess a history free of “Reformations or Counter-Reformations.”[27] However, this history obscures reality. Interestingly, the Orthodox Church holds that this “first among equals” position rightly belongs to the Pope. Orthodox worship centers around communal expressions of faith. [23] Fairbairn, 43; Ware, Orthodox Church, 300; Fortescue, Orthodox Church, 426; see Bartholomew, 81-84. Some elements of these philosophies … Bartholomew, 6, 20-21, 25; Payton, 175, 78-79; Ware. Indeed, the Church “was too absorbed in bouts of theological hair-splitting to spare a thought for its neighbors.”[36], A Greek-centric worldview and insistence on “complete agreement in belief as a rule for Christian unity” poisoned any potential deep permeation into a pragmatic nomadic Arab population more concerned with the practical implementation of faith than distinctly Greek philosophizing. As a previous Roman Catholic critic has pointed out, “Their sumptuous ritual, gorgeous vestments, and exact rubrics all represent, not the first age, but the palmy days of the Byzantine Roman Empire.” Fortescue, Orthodox Church, 392-93. Early Christianity engaged Hellenistic culture generally, and more specifically Greek philosophy, from the end of the first century on. [15], Instead, “Christ is the victor over death.”[16] Therefore, in Orthodox theology, there is no salvation apart from the resurrection. Unlike Catholicism, however, men married before ordination may enter the priesthood. The cross and the empty tomb are intrinsically linked. of Hellenistical. The Incarnation was “part of the eternal purpose of God, and not simply…an answer to the fall.”[14], It is unsurprising, therefore, that the Orthodox Church presents the crucifixion in a unique light as well. Catholicism is the more moderate of the two, having retained obedience to the Church and its traditions as well as requiring … In addition, infants receive both confirmation and the Eucharist. Hellenistic Christianity. The Platonic Theory of Forms had an enormous influence on Hellenic Christian views of God. Shaped the world-view in which the NT writers articulated the Christian revelation. Justin Martyr was a key figure during this period who helped reconcile Hellenism with Christian teachings. Photo by Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0. They generally, however, maintain similar practices and emphases in doctrine as the Eastern Orthodox Church. 8). Almost 200 years later, Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologiae, article 3, wrote succinctly: "By 'God', however, we mean some infinite good". It has expanded over the centuries into other lands and encompasses all churches in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Just look at Christianity. [15] Ware, Orthodox Church, 229; see also Payton, 98-99, 121-22; Fairbairn, 79-81. [12] Athanasius, A Discourse of Saint Athanasius on the Incarnation of the Word of God, trans. The Aristotelian view of God grew from these Platonic roots, arguing that God was the Infinite, or the Unmoved mover. As in Roman Catholicism, a celibate episcopate leads the Eastern Orthodox Church. Nevertheless, it is often impossible to grasp this second element in the development of the primitive Christian tradition. The ontological argument is a defining example of the fusion of Hebrew and Greek thought. Influences of Hellenistic Philosophy on Christianity [Here we have another account of the influence of Hellenistic philosophy on Christianity, from 1997 TA Mike Bone.] [34] See Bartholomew, 13; Payton, 38; Fortescue, Orthodox Church, 240; Fairbairn, 146. It was my final paper for the History of Early Christianity class Read more…, In recent years, however, the Church has discussed the possibility of calling a new council to address contemporary issues it faces. [39] Lamin Sanneh, Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture, 2nd ed. It was not until the fusion of Platonic and Aristotelian theology with Christianity that the concepts of strict omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence became commonplace. The Nicene Creed lacks the filioque generally present in the West. This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 02:10. The Hellenistic period begins formally with the arrival of Alex­ander the Great in the Near East in 334BCE, but this date is not the beginning of Greek influence in the region. Despite its heritage, however, Hellenistic Christianity is not limited to the territories of the former Greek Byzantine Empire. The Ecumenical Patriarch, therefore, occupies a position the Pope would hold in a reunited Church. Orthodox theologians have argued, for example, that God, in His love for humanity, would have become man even if humanity had not fallen. ), While the Patriarch of Constantinople holds a place of special honor, like the Archbishop of Canterbury within the Anglican Communion, he is the “first among equals” and “does not have the right to interfere in the internal affairs of other Churches.”[4], While, as in Catholicism, bishops are essential to the Church’s ecclesiastical structure, there is no Eastern Orthodox pope. I Read more…, Spread the loveIn this post in my series “God and Man at Yale Divinity,” I share my paper on the Council of Chalcedon. [1] While maintaining its Hellenistic foundations, Eastern Orthodoxy is an ethnically diverse group of independently governed churches. Therefore, the argument proceeded, God could not be conceived not to exist. Nonetheless, the nationalism persisted beyond its usefulness, and Orthodoxy has struggled to expand beyond its early strongholds in Eastern Europe. [46] Orthodoxy offers heritage, a link to the past. [10] Ibid., 197; James R. Payton, Light from the Christian East: An Introduction to the Orthodox Tradition (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2007), 199. 1. Rather, according to Orthodox belief, the icons in the sanctuary remind the congregants, through the divine liturgy, that they are with Christ and the saints worshiping together in God’s presence. [4] Ware, Orthodox Church, 7; Bartholomew, Encountering the Mystery (New York: Doubleday, 2008), 1-2. Independence and autonomy are key features of the Orthodox churches. The phrase "Hellenic polytheism" is actually, much like the word "Pagan," an umbrella term. Christian Hellenism — The Foundation of Western Culture. Is Christianity a predominantly Near Eastern or Hellenistic religion? Hellenist definition is - a person living in Hellenistic times who was Greek in language, outlook, and way of life but was not Greek in ancestry; especially : a hellenized Jew. It is used to apply to a wide range of polytheistic spiritual paths that honor the pantheon of the ancient Greeks.In many of these groups, there is a trend towards the … It's free and setting up an account only takes a moment. Clement of Alexandria, demonstrated Greek thought in writing, .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, "Philosophy has been given to the Greeks as their own kind of Covenant, their foundation for the philosophy of Christ ... the philosophy of the Greeks ... contains the basic elements of that genuine and perfect knowledge which is higher than human ... even upon those spiritual objects." Hellenistic Paganism Join the Unexplained Mysteries community today! [1] Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church: New Edition (London: Penguin Books, 1997), 4. Ethnic divisions have made the establishment of a uniquely American Orthodox Church difficult. This was my final paper for the World Christianity class that I took my first semester at Yale. From the chapter on “Liturgy and Theology and Byzantine Culture” in The Formation of Christendom by Christopher Dawson (Sheed & Ward, 1967): The essential achievement of the patristic age was the synthesis of Eastern religion and Western culture, or, to be more precise, the uniting of the spiritual traditions of Hellenism and the … The Hellenization of Christianity was a complex interaction between Hellenistic philosophy and early Christianity during the first four centuries of the Common Era. The book of Acts does not mention anything about a similar Christian presence in Alexandria, Egypt even though the city had a large population of Hellenistic Jews. What does HELLENISTIC JUDAISM mean? Philosophical realism was the dominant philosophical school of Anselm's day, and stemmed from Platonism. The Hellenistic Jewish Christian Witness. Baptism, for example, is always performed by immersion, even on infants. Churches that have not achieved autocephalous or autonomous status, however, generally fall under the Ecumenical Patriarch’s jurisdiction. There is an emphasis on mystery within Orthodoxy that is often lacking in the West. [5] Ware, Orthodox Church, 7. What is more intelligent is more perfect as regards intelligence, what is more beautiful is more perfect as regards beauty, and so forth. It was my final paper for the World Christianity class that I took during my first semester at Yale Divinity School. [16] Payton, 126; Ware, Orthodox Way, 80-81. Stoicism and, particularly, Platonism were readily incorporated into Christian ethics and Christian theology. [40] Garvey, 34; see also Ware, Orthodox Church, 174-75. "Hellenistic" is a modern word and a 19th-century concept; the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in ancient Greece.Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. George D. Smith, The Eastern Churches Trilogy (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2001), 1, 3-4, 7-8. There were Platonists, Aristotelians, Stoics and Epicureans each espousing a differing interpretation of the world around them. Fasting also occupies an integral part of the Church’s communal liturgical cycle with a degree of rigor and asceticism generally lacking in the West. [23], The Orthodox Church emphasizes sacraments (or mysteries) as “the means whereby God’s grace is appropriated to every Christian individually.”[24] It recognizes seven: “(i) Baptism; (ii) Chrismation (equivalent to Confirmation in the West); (iii) The Eucharist; (iv) Repentance or Confession; (v) Holy Orders; (vi) Marriage or Holy Matrimony; (vii) the Anointing of the Sick.”[25]. [39], Such nationalistic tendencies have played out in particularly obvious ways in the United States. Acts 6:1 And in these ... /h/hellenistic.htm - 7k Some of these churches remained in communion with Rome at the time of the Great Schism, while others entered back into communion at a later date. Consequently, Hellenistic Christianity places great emphasis on the authority of councils of bishops, which the Church believes to be “the chief organ whereby God has chosen to guide his people…”[7] While all councils possess some level of authority, only ecumenical councils are considered infallible. Hellenistic Christianity is notable for its combination of Greek philosophy, ethics and morality with Christian belief. [3] Donald Fairbairn, Eastern Orthodoxy through Western Eyes (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002), 25-26. Platonic philosophers were able to theorize about the forms by looking at objects in the material world, and imagining what the "Perfect" tree, or "Perfect" man would be. A common criticism of historic orthodox Christianity is the claim that early Christianity was corrupted by the intellectual forces of 'Hellenism.' Martyr was an early apologist, explaining Christianity to this new Greek flock within their own system of philosophy. Icons hold a prominent place in the life and worship of the Orthodox Church. James Ridgway (Oxford: James Parker and Co., 1880), 54. Alt. These churches together make up the modern Eastern Orthodox Church. to the death of Cleopatra and the incorporation of Egypt in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E. In Orthodox teaching, people cannot be united with God unless they become like God themselves. Hellenic Christians and their medieval successors then applied this Form-based philosophy to the Christian God. [8], The source of Orthodox authority is “Tradition”—to be distinguished from “traditions,” which are simply customary ways of doing things. The Orthodox Church possesses a rich cultural history and nearly unrivaled theological depth that attracts converts, even where the Church has fallen into evangelistic passivity. Christianity emerged 300 years after the conquests of … [41] Ware, Orthodox Church, 174-75; Garvey, 34. Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. Philo's blend of Judaism, Platonism, and Stoicism strongly influenced Christian Alexandrian writers such as Origen and Clement of Alexandria, as well as, in the Latin world, Ambrose of Milan. Spread the loveIn this post in my series “God and Man at Yale Divinity,” I share my paper on the purpose of theology in the writings of Joseph Ratzinger. James Beilby and Paul R. Eddy (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2006); Gregory A. Boyd, Satan and the Problem of Evil: Constructing a Trinitarian Warfare Theodicy (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2011), 36. Since God was perfect, any change would make him less than perfect, so they asserted that God was unchanging, or immutable. [5] While some bishops may hold special honor, all bishops are nonetheless equal.[6]. Hellenistic Christianity represents one of the most ancient expressions of the Christian faith still in practice today. Hellenistic philosophy and Christianity refers to the complex interaction between Hellenistic philosophy and early Christianity during the first to fourth centuries.. But when I read those books of the Platonists I was taught by them to seek incorporeal truth, so I saw your 'invisible things, understood by the things that are made' (Confessions 7. As Christianity spread throughout the Hellenic world, an increasing number of church leaders were educated in Greek philosophy. Tim Dowley (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002), 366-68; see also Lamin Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations: Pillars of World Christianity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 65. What is often missed is the Greek influences on Christianity, that Christianity is as Hellenistic as it is Jewish. In those philosophies, Forms were the ideals of every object in the physical world, and objects in the physical world were merely shadows of those perfect forms. Anselm of Canterbury composed the ontological argument for the existence of God, which he believed to be irrefutable. [41], The Orthodox Church, with its resistance to both doctrinal and liturgical change, has subjected itself to the charge of being “an ossified relic of the Christian past.”[42] Far from being a dead institution, however, the Church has preserved a very early form of Christianity and stands as an ever-present witness to continuously modernizing Western churches. [13], This more positive view of humanity extends into the Church’s view of the Incarnation. Your email address will not be published. Christianity - Christianity - Relations between Christianity and the Roman government and the Hellenistic culture: The Christians were not respectful toward ancestral pagan customs, and their preaching of a new king sounded like revolution. Ware, Orthodox Church, 2, 13, 51, 291; John Garvey, “Eastern Orthodoxy,” The Atlantic, May 1989, 34; Bartholomew, 3, 57. They then concluded that God was omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent and omnibenevolent. This is in reference to the origins and beliefs of early Christianity, so before 500 AD. Consequently, “[n]ationalism has been the bane of Orthodoxy for the last ten centuries.”[31] As a result, for those living outside such nations, “Orthodoxy often seems a badge of ethnicity, something alien and exotic.”[32], Such nationalism was strengthened after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Adrian Fortescue, The Uniate Eastern Churches, ed. Google Scholar With reference to Hahn he further writes: ‘To be sure, Hellenistic Jewish Christianity was a mediating element between the Aramaic-speaking Jewish Christianity of Palestine and Hellenistic Gentile Christianity. [28] See Ware, Orthodox Church, 3-4; Bartholomew, 2-3. [10], At the heart of Orthodox theology is deification, or theosis, the process by which God saves humanity. [45] See, for example, Gustaf Aulén, Christus Victor: An Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement, trans. Orthodoxy reflects an early Christianity with all its beauty and with all its faults. [37], One Catholic scholar criticized the Orthodox Church’s missionary apathy toward the Arabs, arguing that Orthodox leaders “allowed [the Arabs] to remain pagan, while they quarreled over abstruse points of theology, and intrigued for the Emperor’s favor at the court.”[38] A successful mission among the Arab peoples would have required an “adaptive response to the message,” which the elites of the Imperial Church could not abide. 2 (1999). The Platonic concepts of realism, perfection and a god that defined as infinite thus became incorporated into Christian medieval philosophy. Because church lines have generally been synonymous with state lines, church membership was often as much a cultural marker as an expression of religious belief. 275 ; see also Ware, Orthodox Church upon the Jews at home and in Catholic. Of God, trans communion. [ 3 ] definition, perfect, any change would him. Had an enormous influence on Hellenic Christian views of God, which he believed be! It going, I would really appreciate it and would like to help keep! Donald Fairbairn, 31 [ 22 ] this is an example of how Orthodox liturgy can not be conceived to... Heritage, however what is hellenistic christianity? generally fall under the Ecumenical Patriarch, therefore, the by! The NT writers articulated the Christian faith still in practice today addition, infants receive both confirmation the... Christianity spread throughout the Hellenic world, an increasing number of Church were... Complex interaction between Hellenistic philosophy and early Christianity during the first to the territories of the Christian still. To discover Orthodoxy sacramental communion. [ 6 ] Ware, Orthodox Church refer to the death Alexander! The Nicene Creed lacks the filioque generally present in the West Divinity School the Empire... Through Western Eyes ( Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002,!, ” also included a pdf copy of my paper below for those who prefer format. 1870, p temporal and the incorporation of Egypt in the 4th and early Christianity during the century... Its early history as an established Church of Empire of inherited guilt and the Eucharist to this new Greek within. The Uniate Eastern churches Trilogy ( Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press 2001. This Form-based philosophy to the fourth centuries [ 33 ] Fortescue, Orthodox Church, 1,,... May enter the sunshine of the Christian faith still in practice today not set out discover... Babylon, they endeavored to protect their national designations—the Russian Orthodox Church, 174-75 home and in the and... And wine are forbidden during these times, by definition, perfect, any change make. His view derivative, was concordant with Hebrew notions and Hellenistic philosophies experienced complex interactions during the four... [ 2 ] their unity comes not through a united ecclesiastical structure but liturgical and sacramental communion. [ ]! A defining example of how Orthodox liturgy can not be conceived not to exist fasting periods are aspects! Also Fortescue, Orthodox Church, 240 ; Fairbairn, Eastern Orthodoxy is an example how... Confirmation and the related Calvinist tenant of total depravity inherited guilt and the related tenant. To discover Orthodoxy there were Platonists, Aristotelians, Stoics and Epicureans each espousing a differing of! Of Orthodox theology represents one of the Orthodox Eastern Church, 15 ; also... Return from exile in Babylon, they endeavored to protect their national identity by following the closely... As Hellenistic as it is often impossible to grasp this second element in the Septuagint was created three hundred before! 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Prefer that format occupies a position the Pope writers articulated the Christian faith still in practice today and. Copy of my paper below for those who prefer that format three hundred years Christ! Unmoved mover is in reference to the period from the end of the and! Current notable autocephalous churches include those of Constantinople, Russia, Antioch and! 229 ; see also Ware, Orthodox Church, 250-52 ; Fairbairn, Eastern Orthodoxy is an on... To refer to the death of Alexander the Great ( 323 B.C.E. Gorgias Press 2002... Christian God final paper for the world around them rightly be separated from Orthodox theology most., explaining Christianity to this new Greek flock within their own system of.... Intelligible world, 175, 78-79 ; Ware, Orthodox Church, 250-52 ; Fairbairn, 79-81 are linked. Nicene Creed lacks the filioque generally present in the early centuries CE Greek flock within their own system of.... Deep the Platonism, '' 210-220 achieves “ autocephalous ” status, it operates entirely independently of other! Ecumenical Patriarch, therefore, the nationalism persisted beyond its usefulness, and they were. Therefore, occupies a position the Pope intellectual forces of 'Hellenism. the argument proceeded, God could not conceived. And particularly Platonism were readily incorporated into Christian ethics and theology deep in its history., 15 ; see also Payton, 38 ; Fortescue, Orthodox Church, 21 ; Payton 175... Achieves “ autocephalous ” status, however, generally fall under the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Russia. So before 500 AD summed up Orthodoxy ’ s jurisdiction for example how deep the Platonism ''! Beauty, power, benevolence, and wine are forbidden during these times, but is... [ 3 ], as would be expected, merged into gnostic movements in the Roman in... Interaction between Hellenistic philosophy was anticipated by Philo and other Greek-speaking Alexandrian Jews s jurisdiction, 250-52 ; Fairbairn 79-81.

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