First, the problem remains that the rather formal setting of business communication does not lend itself for the use of emoticons, which are interpreted as informal and in some cases as incorrect. (1998). The lack of nonverbal cues implies automatically that not all information is fully transferred (McKenna & Bargh, 2000). B., & Tidwell, L. C. (1995). Gergen, K. J. Most people find it difficult to engage in parallel activities, so engaging in a new activity (for example answering an incoming phone call or e-mail) leads automatically to disengagement in the ‘old’ activity (for example the conversation you were in before the phone call or e-mail interrupted). Research has linked interruptions to both negative and positive impacts on task performance (Jett & George, 2003; Perlow, 1999, 1997). Mobile methodologies: experiences from studies of Since e-mail is proven to be very practical in the exchange of documents (e.g., Sullivan, 1995) it has also become more common to deliver feedback on these documents by e-mail. Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. a theory of apparatgeist. Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: A This makes it an important resource fuelling our motivation at work (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). Galagher, J., Sproull, L. & Kiesler, S. (1998). The main reason for organizations to provide smartphones to their employees is to increase their communication efficiency and to raise their flexibility. Moreover, particular the impact of mobile devices on work is a relatively new research field, and the empirical studies handling this issue are relatively few. Paper presented at the conference on computer supported cooperative work, Toronto. Tesser, A., & Rosen, S. (1975). However, although there was a small overall increase in number of e-mails, the officers did not feel that the mobile technology contributed to information overload. The mutable mobile: social theory in the wireless world. Or do they underestimate their work-home interference since the smartphone intrudes gradually in their private life. Shaw, M. E. (1981). Feedback, an important resource according to the JD-R model, is discussed in the next section. Journal of Organizational Computing, 5, 355-378. Managing knowledge-based competition. Accounting for the contradictory Second, if we are not aware of our lack of competence in communicating ambiguous messages, we will not feel the need to use an emoticon to clarify either. Gender and emotion in face-to-face and computer- The Information Society, 18, 281-292. However, people have a natural reluctance in delivering negative feedback (Rosen & Tesser, 1970), which can make the same feedback an emotional demand for the sender. However, the costs of e-mail are disproportionally loaded on the recipient who engages in continuous activity switching between e-mail and other tasks (Renaud, Ramsay, & Hair, 2006). Orlikowski, W. J. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Sussman, S. W., & Sproull, L. (1999). endstream endobj startxref San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass. 7-29). ), Proceedings of the 24th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 24) (Vol. Human Relations, 48, 97-125. Kruger, J., Epley, N., Parker, J., & Ng, Z. W. (2005). can we communicate as well as we think? Renaud, K., Ramsay, J., & Hair, M. (2006). Time and Society, 9, 57-74. Van Hooff, M. L. M., Geurts, S. A. E., Kompier, M. A. J., & Taris, T. W. (2006). Jablin, L. L. Putnam, K. H. Roberts, & L. W. Porter (Eds. E-mail communication might be an important moderator in this process. ), Culture of the Internet (pp. 19-31). London: Springer. This can increase both spatial and temporal flexibility for users (Steward, 2000). Electronic mail and B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. Response effects in the electronic survey. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the balance between formal and casual communication among workers. Rosen, S., & Tesser, A. Evaluating employees by e-mail might decrease the emotional demands of the messenger, but will it also benefit the receiver? A new development in digital media is the increasing use of smart phones in business today. They concluded that the emotional impact of tele-working is concentrated around three main themes. In S. Kiesler, (Ed. The desire to retreat from stressful environments goes hand in hand with the desire to stay involved. In addition, job resources become salient and have the greatest impact on engagement and performance when job demands are high (Bakker et al., 2007; Hakanen, Bakker, & Demerouti, 2005). Reach a large group of people in one delivery to structure the day in such way... 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