Class 11. The hydrocarbons can be divided into various homologous series. Classification of hydrocarbons’ exploration and exploitation projects 4 most profitable and largest ones (in terms of resources) are exploration projects. Open chain hydrocarbons are also called aliphatic hydrocarbons or acyclic hydrocarbons. Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of the double bond. HYDROCARBONS are the compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. For instance, alkanes, alkynes or alkenes, the amount of bonded hydrogen decreases in alkenes and alkynes. Metallic compounds: zinc, titanium, calcium, magnesium, vanadium, copper, nickel, and iron. There are 3 mechanisms suggested for the elimination reactions. That article is very good and simple for understanding the concept of hydro-carbons. For example: Ethane CH3—CH3 • Unsaturated Hydrocarbon • Aromatic Hydrocarbon Benzene and its derivatives are called aromatic compounds. … Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. The hydrocarbons, which contain atoms linked on the open chain are known as open-chain compounds. Strong, stable bonds between carbon atoms produce complex molecules containing chains, branches, and rings. The existence of hydrocarbons is seen in plants and trees. Benzene generally undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions. Alkenes are a class of hydrocarbons (e.g, containing only carbon and hydrogen) unsaturated compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. More favoured in non-polar, aprotic solvents. Hydrocarbons are compounds comprised exclusively of carbon and hydrogen and they are by far the dominant components of crude oil, processed petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil), coal tar, creosote, dyestuff, and pyrolysis waste products. All these eliminations are β- eliminations. They are as follow is. Hydrocarbon. Important topics - Hydrocarbons (i) Classification of hydrocarbons (ii) Alkanes (iii) Alkenes (iv) Alkynes (v) Aromatic . ⇒ Check: Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry. Download hydrocarbons JEE Previous Year Solved Questions PDF. Older chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic. Study Materials are all hydrocarbons or their mixture. Introduction to Hydrocarbons. Sometimes catalysts are used to speed up the reaction. As defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: Chemistry. • Saturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon is said to be saturated if it contains only C—C single bonds. Alkanes are very feebly soluble in water but they are soluble in non-polar solvents such as Benzene, CCl4, etc. This class can be further divided into two groups: … This is accomplished by supplying an adequate amount of heat and pressure. As such, it was found out that Aliphatic hydrocarbons were derived from chemical degradation of fats or oils whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contained substances that were a result of chemical degradation of certain plant extracts. If we look around us these hydrocarbons are widely distributed from fibre to petroleum, Coal to L P G used in daily life solvent in paints, dyes and drugs. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbon - Hydrocarbon - Physical properties: The physical properties of alkenes and alkynes are generally similar to those of alkanes or cycloalkanes with equal numbers of carbon atoms. Alkanes with 10 C-atoms or less are generally gases at room temperatures more than 10 C-atoms, the molecules are gases or liquid. Meanwhile, cracking of Hydrocarbons is a process in which heavy organic molecules are broken down into lighter molecules. Depending upon the types of carbon-carbon bonds present, they can be classified into tree main categories: 1) Saturated Hydrocarbon 2) Unsaturated Hydrocarbon 3) Aromatic Hydrocarbon 4. Eg: C2H6 has more boiling point than CH4. e.g., methane (CH 4), … This is mainly due to the “self-bonding” or catenation of carbon that prevents the complete saturation of the hydrocarbon by the formation of double or triple bonds. 3. Plus I will cover some concepts about a derivative of hydrocarbons called Alcohols. The most common aromatic hydrocarbons are those that contain a benzene ring. Furthermore, hydrocarbons such as propane and butane are used for commercial fuel purposes in the form of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Alkanes. Missed the LibreFest? Crude oil's classification as either “light” or “heavy” depends on the oil’s relative density, based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity. Learn Videos. This process plays a very important role in the commercial production of diesel fuel and gasoline. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. Note: Alkanes with only even number of carbons atoms can be produced. The alkanes can be produced from alkenes or alkynes through hydrogenation. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. General formula: C H. Alkynes contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Alkanes generally having low boiling and melting points owing to their weak Vanderwal’s interaction. They are of various type according to their structure. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The study of hydrocarbons can provide insight into the chemical properties of other functional groups and their preparation. Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Carbon: Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide Nomenclature and Preparation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Concepts, Q&A Classification of … Due to their different molecular structures, the empirical formula of hydrocarbons is also different from each other. For example, Carotenes is an organic pigment which is found in green leaves and carrots. H2 gas is passed over a metal surface such as Ni, Pt along with the alkenes to produce alkane. 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